Riyadh roads turn green as world’s largest urban greening project branches out

03/08/20

Based on experience, roads and streets without trees contain eight to 10 times the amount of dust compared with streets lined with trees on both sides. (Photo/Supplied)
  • Capital gets a facelift as Vision 2030 program works to plant 7.5 million trees
  • Most of the tree species used in the project are from a well-developed local environment with low agricultural service and care

RIYADH: The Green Riyadh project, one of the world’s largest urban greening initiatives, is rapidly bearing fruit as it transforms main roads in the capital.

Major thoroughfares, including King Khalid, Makkah and King Salman roads, are getting a facelift as part of the Vision 2030 goal of improving quality of life in the city.
Dr. Fahad Al-Mana, a professor of Ornamental Plants, Gardens and Green Areas at King Saud University, told Arab News that native tree species being used for the project include Ziziphus spina-christi, Acacia gerrardii and Prosopis cineraria, commonly known as the ghaf tree.
According to Al-Mana, the trees can survive in harsh desert conditions and will grow without intensive agricultural care.
“Most of the tree species used in the planting of the Green Riyadh project are from a well-developed local environment with low agricultural service and care,” he said.
Environmental conditions in Riyadh were taken into account during the tree selection process. The species can grow to a large size in only three years.
“In some locations, they have moved large 3-year-old local trees that were taken care of in plant nurseries to new locations where they are growing successfully,” Al-Mana said.
Green Riyadh will increase the amount of greenery in the city and augment the green cover in the Saudi capital with the planting of 7.5 million trees around the city’s main features and facilities.
The project will reduce the average ambient temperature by 2 degrees Celsius and improve air quality, encouraging people to follow a healthier lifestyle by walking or cycling.

FASTFACTS

• The project will reduce the average ambient temperature by 2 degrees Celsius and improve air quality, encouraging people to follow a healthier lifestyle by walking or cycling.

• The project will maximize the use of recycled water in irrigation works by increasing usage from 90,000 cubic meters per day to more than 1 million cubic meters per day through the construction of a new recycled water network.

• Green space in the city will increase from 5 percent to 9 percent by 2030

“The aim of planting trees in the streets is to provide shade and moderate the temperature, especially in summer, which contributes to the purification of air and reduces environmental pollution by protecting the city from sand storms, winds and dust. In addition, it gives an aesthetic view and the element of nature enters the city and nearby structures,” said Al-Mana.
He added that trees, especially those planted in central street islands, must have long trunks and high branches to avoid hindering the movement of pedestrians and cars. The trunk must measure at least 3 to 4 meters and the size of the trees planted must be proportional to the width of the island.
Al-Mana said green space in the city will increase from 5 percent to 9 percent by 2030.
According to the Green Riyadh website, the project will maximize the use of recycled water in irrigation works by increasing usage from 90,000 cubic meters per
day to more than 1 million cubic meters per day through the construction of a new recycled water network.
Al-Mana said the Green Riyadh project will also reduce carbon dioxide and impurity levels in the city.
“Based on experience, roads and streets without trees contain eight to 10 times the amount of dust compared with streets lined with trees on both sides,” he said.

This article was first published in Arab News

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Saudi school smashes world record for longest chain of bottle caps

Time: 30 June, 2020

An environment-conscious Saudi school in Jeddah has topped the world record for the longest chain of bottle caps. (Supplied/BISJ/Guinness World Records)
  • Staff and children at the British International School of Jeddah (BISJ) threaded together 323,103 caps

JEDDAH: An environment-conscious Saudi school has topped the world record for the longest chain of bottle caps.

Staff and children at the British International School of Jeddah (BISJ) threaded together 323,103 caps to break the previous Guinness World Records title of 260,866 gained in the Netherlands.

The official attempt followed a plastic pollution awareness campaign, in which the school managed to collect a massive amount of bottle caps with the aim of taking them to a recycling firm and donating the funds locally to support children with disabilities by buying items such as wheelchairs and leg braces.

Sonja Sutcliffe, deputy head of the BISJ, said: “We have tried to break the Guinness World Records title for over a year with an aim to raising community awareness of the problem of plastic pollution, especially in oceans.

“We started by collecting as many bottle caps as we could, even cleaning up the local areas a little on the way.

“The message was to visually represent how many plastic bottles we use and see how the tops could be converted into specialized equipment for less-fortunate children. This is an amazing achievement of teamwork, vision, and resilience,” she added.

The school approached the challenge in a methodical and scientific way, working out the best ways to put holes in the caps and measure out fishing line to string them together.

Organizers used standard-size bottle caps, fishing line to make the lines of caps and large needles to thread the caps onto the line, as well as specific recording sheets for counting and measuring.

The final length of the chain was measured at 2,738.5 meters.

This article was first published in Arab News

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First phase of ‘Riyadh Green Program’ launched

24/02/20

The Riyadh Green Program includes the establishment of 48 major parks in the capital. (SPA)

  • The Riyadh Green Program includes the establishment of 48 major parks in the capital

RIYADH: Riyadh city has launched afforestation projects under the “Riyadh Green Program” to improve the quality of life in the capital.
It is one of the four major projects for the city announced by King Salman last year at the initiative of Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman.
The first phase includes planting of about 31,000 trees along 144 km of main roads, including King Salman Road, King Khalid Road, King Fahd Road, Airport Road, Makkah Al-Mukarramah Road, North Ring Road, and Eastern Ring Road.
Also, 100,000 shrubs will be planted, bringing the total green areas on these roads around 1.4 million sq. meters.
The Riyadh Green Program includes the establishment of 48 major parks in the capital and 3,250 parks within residential neighborhoods.

This article was first published in Arab News

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Saudi Arabia 3rd-fastest reducer of fuel emissions among G20 nations

04/02/20

Carbon dioxide emissions in Saudi Arabia fell by almost double the predicted amount during 2018, the most up-to-date statistics from Enerdata have revealed. (Reuters/File)
  • CO2 emissions in the Kingdom fell by almost double the predicted amount during 2018

RIYADH: Saudi Arabia has become the third-fastest reducer of emissions from fuel consumption among G20 countries, according to latest figures.

Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the Kingdom fell by almost double the predicted amount during 2018, the most up-to-date statistics from Enerdata have revealed.

Data for the year showed a 4.4 percent or 26 million tons (MtCO2) fall in emissions in the country, down from 579 MtCO2 in 2017 to 553 MtCO2 in 2018. Previous estimates had put the reduction at 2.4 percent (15 MtCO2).

The results moved Saudi Arabia up from being fourth to the third-fastest reducer of emissions from fuel consumption among the top-five G20 group of countries, behind Brazil and France and in front of Germany and Japan.

Researchers at the King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center (KAPSARC) have published an analysis based on the updated estimates.

“This new data shows that the impact of energy efficiency and energy price reforms in reducing wasteful energy use has been even greater than expected,” said Dr. Nicholas Howarth, a researcher at KAPSARC.

“Prior to 2016, CO2 emissions grew at over 5 percent each year. Seeing emissions now fall so strongly may come as a surprise to many.

“It also comes as Saudi Arabia hosts the G20 summit, where climate change is an important agenda item. It sets the stage well for the Kingdom to show leadership on the issue,” he added.

KAPSARC’s study findings showed that the rate of improvement in the energy intensity of Saudi Arabia’s economy was 5.5 percent in 2018, well above the global average of 1.2 percent.

Dr. Alessandro Lanza, another KAPSARC researcher, said: “Falling energy intensity was responsible for 81 percent of the emissions reductions, meaning more value is being created for every unit of energy consumed locally.”

According to researcher Thamir Al-Shehri, a sharp fall in diesel consumption was the main reason for the additional drop in emission levels.

“Emissions from the transport sector fell by an extra 10 MtCO2 than what was previously expected. This was due to diesel emissions falling by 19 MtCO2, or 43 percent, from 43.5 MtCO2 in 2017 to 24.5 MtCO2 in 2018.

“In addition to lower fuel use from consumers, part of the explanation for this large drop may be a lower payoff due to higher local diesel prices for those who would buy the fuel in Saudi Arabia to illegally export to other countries,” added Al-Shehri.

This article was first published in Arab News

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Saudi Neom megacity will have world’s first ‘solar dome’ desalination plant

Time: 30 January, 2020 

(Photo/Supplied)
  • Facility will be completely sustainable, carbon neutral and greatly reduce environmental impact of water extraction
  • Construction is due to begin in the next month and is expected to be complete by end of 2020

TABUK: The Neom smart-city project will use cutting-edge solar technology to power a desalination plant that produces clean, low-cost, environmentally friendly fresh water.

The decision aims to enhance megacity’s position as a new global tourism destination, a center of innovation and environmental conservation, and as an accelerator of human progress.

Neom signed an agreement with UK business Solar Water Limited to build a desalination plant in the northwest of the Kingdom that uses the newly developed “solar dome” technology. It is hoped the first-of-its-kind, completely sustainable and carbon-neutral facility will shape the future of desalination in Neom, the Kingdom and throughout the world.

Work on the solar dome project will begin in February and is expected to be completed by the end of the year. The technology it employs will significantly reduce the environmental impact of the desalination process by producing less saline solution, a byproduct that can harm natural ecosystems.

The pioneering and innovative approach from Solar Water Limited, which was developed at Cranfield University in the UK, represents the first widespread use of concentrated solar power technology in desalination, Neom said. Seawater is pumped into a hydrological solar dome made of glass and steel, where it is heated and evaporated to remove the salt. The process can continue at night thanks to the storage of solar energy generated throughout the day. The technology helps to prevent any damage to marine life as it does not dump saline solution created by the process back into the sea.

“Neom’s adoption of the experimental version of this program supports the sustainability goals set by the Ministry in the Kingdom, as shown in the National Water Strategy 2030, and is fully in line with the sustainable-development goals set by the United Nations,” said Minister of Environment, Water and Agriculture Abdulrahman Al-Fadhli.

Neom CEO Nadhmi Al-Nasr said that the megacity project has easy access to abundant amounts of seawater and completely renewable energy resources, which puts it in the ideal position to produce low-cost and sustainable fresh water using solar-powered desalination.

He added that the adoption of this type of technology reflects Neom’s commitment to supporting innovation, protecting the environment and preserving its purity to provide a comfortable and exceptional life. It also raises the possibility of using the technology in other parts of Saudi Arabia in cooperation with the Ministry of Environment, Water and Agriculture.

David Reavley, the CEO of Solar Water Ltd, said: “Currently, thousands of desalination plants around the world rely heavily on burning fossil fuels for water extraction, and we have the technology to desalinate water in a way that is completely sustainable and 100 percent carbon neutral.

“We are happy to partner with Neom, which has a strong vision of what the new future looks like in harmony and integration with nature.”

This article was first published in Arab News

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Saudi Arabia joins club of Middle East’s ‘green energy’ leaders

20/01/20

The value of solar-power projects in the MENA region is estimated at between $5 billion and $7.5 billion. By 2024, that figure is expected to approach $15 billion to $20 billion. (Shutterstock)
  • Government plans to invest up to $50bn in renewable energy projects by 2023
  • Demand for electricity in the Kingdom is forecast to rise by up to 120 GW by 2030

ABU DHABI: Saudi Arabia has become one of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region’s leaders in the race to use renewable energy, according to a new study.

The Solar Outlook Report 2020 was launched at the Solar Forum of the World Future Energy Summit, a highlight of this year’s Abu Dhabi Sustainability Week (Jan. 11-18).
The report, prepared by Middle East Solar Industry Association (MESIA), the largest regional body of its kind, said Saudi Arabia and Oman have joined the UAE, Morocco and Egypt as leaders in the renewables race.
“Saudi Arabia is now in the third year of implementation of its massive target of 60 gigawatts (GW) of renewable energy generation by 2030,” it said.
Martine Mamlouk, secretary-general of MESIA, said that investment in solar energy is evident across MENA countries. “Saudi Arabia has a target of almost 60 gigawatts of renewable energy, out of which 40 gigawatts are solar,” she told Arab News.
“This is in line with the Kingdom’s objective of diversification and Vision 2030. While the industry is reaching grid parity, it is great to see the deployment of new innovative technologies to increase efficiency of systems, production management and grids.”
Upcoming solar projects in the Kingdom include Madinah, Rafh, Qurayyat, Al-Faisaliah, Rabigh as well as Jeddah, Mahd Al-Dahab, Al-Rass, SAAD and Wadi Ad-Dawasir, along with Layla and PIF.
Saudi Arabia’s energy demand has been rising steadily, with consumption increasing by 60 percent in the past 10 years, according to data provided by market researchers Frost & Sullivan. Demand for electricity in 2019 reached 62.7 GW and is forecast to rise by up to 120 GW by 2030.
The value of solar-power projects in the MENA region is estimated at between $5 billion and $7.5 billion. By 2024, that figure is expected to approach $15 billion to $20 billion.
Under its Vision 2030 program, the Kingdom aims to reduce its dependency on oil revenues, diversify its energy mix and tap its renewable energy potential.

Saudi Acwa power-generating windmills that have been erected in Jbel Sendouq, on the outskirts of Tangier, Morocco. (Reuters)

After the Renewable Energy Project Development Office (REPDO) was set up within the Ministry of Energy, the goals for the Kingdom’s National Renewable Energy Program (NREP) were revised upwards in 2018, resulting in a five-year target of 27.3 GW and a 12-year target of 58.7 GW.
The Saudi government plans to invest up to $50 billion in renewable energy projects by 2023.
“At MESIA, we are excited to see solar developments in the MENA region accelerating and reaching attractive tariffs, while lowering the carbon footprint of regional economies,” Mamlouk said.
“The total investment in renewables in MENA between 2019 and 2023 is expected to be $71.4 billion, representing a 34 percent share of the total investment in the power sector, which is valued at $210 billion.”
Changes introduced by Saudi Arabia include a focus on local developers and easing of regulations for local manufacturers of solar panels.
A Local Content and Government Procurement Authority has been established to oversee and audit local content compliance.
Separately, a Renewable Energy Financing package has been launched by the Saudi Industrial Development Fund to support the growth of utility and distributed-generation sectors.
After solar photovoltaic panels were installed on the roof of a mosque in Riyadh, the King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center recommended a similar move at other mosques.
Meanwhile, plans for the use of solar panels in the Saudi agro-industry have led to burgeoning interest in the technology, with several industrial facilities expected to have their own units in the not-too-distant future.
For good measure, a regulatory framework to allow exchanges with the power grid is being studied by the Electricity Co-generation Regulatory Authority.
Flexible storage solutions, such as hydrogen, will give intermittent renewable energy a greater share in the energy system, Mamlouk said. “It may enable present-day oil and gas exporters to become key renewable energy exporters tomorrow. The solar industry is thrilled and proud to participate in this profound transformation of Saudi Arabia’s energy system.”
In the past year solar tariffs have reached record levels in the MENA region, mainly due to tremendous cost declines that have brought the goal of grid parity within reach.
With installed solar electricity capacity worldwide standing at 617.9 GW, MENA governments are staying focused on energy diversification with the help of large-scale projects.
In the UAE, Dubai is targeting the completion of a 5 GW facility by 2030 at the Mohammed Bin Rashid Al-Maktoum Solar Park. Abu Dhabi has “engaged” its second-largest solar project and is considering the roll-out of more units by 2025.

INNUMBER

62.7GW – Demand for electricity in Saudi Arabia in 2019

Morocco aims to reach 52 percent contribution by renewables in its energy mix by 2030. The figures for Tunisia and Egypt are 30 percent and 20 percent, respectively, by 2022.
Oman expects solar-power plants totaling 1.5 GW to come on stream by the end of 2022. Even Iraq, with all its political troubles and administrative paralysis, has not ignored solar power in drawing up plans for its future energy mix.
“Investments in renewable energy have reached billions in all Arab countries,” Mohammed Al-Taani, secretary-general of the Arab Renewable Energy Commission, said.
“Jordan is spending more on renewable energy, and we encourage people to have more independence with renewables by generating their own electricity to reduce their bills.”


Nevertheless challenges remain when it comes to implementing projects in rural and isolated areas, according to Mustapha Taoumi, a technology expert at the EU-GCC Clean Energy Technology Network. “With regard to issues of power grid and access to the people, we have to prepare for everything and be ready to receive new technology because there are communities with little income and education,” he said.
“Then there is the challenge of implementation on the part of different actors and sectors. Social acceptance is also important as we come with new technologies and (information on) how to use them.
“We have to be innovative when it comes to financing the facilitation process. We have to be fair and democratic,” he said.
Although this is an exciting time for the region, governments will have to raise their efforts since they are still subsidizing the cost of power, Taoumi said.
“Technologies are evolving quickly, so decision-making must keep pace,” he said. “We could end up having smart meters in rural and isolated areas in two to three years.”

This article was first published in Arab News

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Drive to stamp out environmental violations in Saudi Arabia

Time: 15 January, 2020

A photo taken on on January 5, 2020 show boats anchored along the Red Sea coast, in Saudi Arabia, on January 5, 2020. (AFP)
  • The northern region registered the lowest number of violations with 488 from 1,314 visits

JEDDAH: Inspection teams from the General Authority of Meteorology and Environmental Protection (PME) discovered 8,754 environmental violations in Saudi Arabia in 2019, having carried out 21,369 inspections, it has reported.
Dr. Abdulrahman bin Sulaiman Al-Tariki, president general of the PME, revealed that Makkah had the highest number of violations, with 3,069 resulting from 4,756 visits. There were 1,799 violations from 4,573 visits in the Riyadh region; 1,070 violations from 2,427 visits in the southern region; 922 violations from 4,392 visits in the eastern region; 907 violations from 3,004 visits in Madinah; and 499 violations in Jazan from 903 visits. The northern region registered the lowest number of violations with 488 from 1,314 visits.
Al-Tariki said that the environmental inspection teams will continue to follow up on those who violate environmental standards and ensure they make the necessary fixes. “They will also impose fines and penalties on violators of the laws,” he said.

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Siemens, Tarshid to reduce emissions

29/12/19

Siemens is turning buildings and organizations in the Kingdom into high performing assets by maximizing efficiency, minimizing costs and reducing environmental impact.

Tarshid, the National Energy Services Company, and Siemens Saudi Arabia have signed a smart energy scheme to reduce 4,300 tons of CO2 emissions and support the National Information Center (NIC) save 28 percent on energy consumption annually. Leveraging on the Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) model to accelerate smart building performance initiatives and reduce national domestic energy usage, Siemens aims to support businesses in the Kingdom along their journey toward a more sustainable and profitable future.
Siemens is partnering with Tarshid in the implementation of a holistic building performance and sustainability solution for the NIC.
With this agreement, the company aims to serve the Kingdom’s strategic sustainability goal of achieving significant energy savings by 2030.
“With buildings now becoming an essential part of clean energy transition strategies in the Kingdom, Siemens’ energy-saving measures for its cooling, lighting and occupancy-based energy scheme ensures the best outcomes for their project value and minimizes operating expenditures within the ESPC’s 10-year payback scheme,” the company said.
Combining the expertise of Siemens’ data analytics and digital services capabilities to deliver new levels of building performance and insights, the NIC will be able to reduce their strategic and operational goals, while increasing their competitive advantage.

HIGHLIGHTS

• Siemens is working with Tarshid to support the National Information Center save 28% on energy consumption annually through an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC).

• The project reduces 4,300 tons of CO2 emissions from the environment, equivalent to planting 21,600 trees.

Elangovan Karuppiah, CEO of Siemens Smart Infrastructure, Regional Solutions and Services, Middle East and Asia, said: “Siemens has been a trusted partner of Saudi Arabia for nearly a century. This exciting new energy efficiency project is evidence of our firm commitment to jointly build the smart infrastructure that will power the Kingdom’s smart cities and create a sustainable future for the next generation.”
Siemens has expanded its investment in Saudi Arabia by transferring its know-how in energy efficiency, as well as its regional competency centers and global know-how to enable the Kingdom to reduce its dependency on oil and cut power consumption of its critical facilities, like the NIC. Backed by a strong global network of building performance and advisory services and proven track record in energy efficiency projects, Siemens is turning buildings and organizations in the Kingdom into high-performing assets by maximizing efficiency, minimizing costs and reducing environmental impact.

This article was first published in Arab News

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Saudi Aramco leads fight against methane

22/12/19

Saudi Aramco spends a big proportion of its research and development budget on measures to counter the environmentally damaging effects of the oil and gas business. (Shutterstock

Saudi company is more efficient in both current emissions and its targets for future reduction
DUBAI: Saudi Aramco has emerged as the most effective energy company in the world at mitigating emissions of the atmospheric pollutant methane from natural gas operations, according to consulting firm Thunder Said Energy.

A research survey put Aramco, the world’s biggest listed company, at the top of a table that included all the big energy groups.

The Saudi company was about six times more efficient than US energy giants Exxon Mobil and Chevron, in both current emissions and targets for future reduction, as a proportion of its gas production.Equinor, the state energy company of environmentally conscious Norway, ranked second in the survey.

Thunder Said’s Rob West, an expert in energy economics, said that controlling methane emissions was a crucial aspect of the move to decarbonize global energy supplies, in which gas is playing an increasingly important role. Methane, a much more powerful greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide (CO2), is released in the gas production and transportation process.


Saudi Aramco became the world’s most valuable public company this year with a stock offering launch in December. (AP)
“Scaling up natural gas is the largest decarbonization opportunity on the planet. But this requires minimizing methane leaks. Exciting new technologies are emerging,” West said. Global gas demand will treble by 2050 as producers and consumers seek cleaner alternatives to coal and oil.

Aramco, the biggest oil exporter, has huge quantities of natural gas, which it has identified as a key area of expansion for domestic supply and export in the form of liquified natural gas. “We basically look at natural gas as an area for growth for the company,” Khalid Al-Dabbagh, Aramco’s chief financial officer, said in an investor call in the run-up to its successful IPO this year.

Aramco spends a big proportion of its research and development budget on measures to counter the environmentally damaging effects of the oil and gas business, including advanced technology to reduce pollutants in energy products.

Although most environmentalists have focused their attention on CO2 as the main contributor to global warming, and hence to damaging climate change, some experts regard methane as a far more serious threat.

There is far more CO2 in the atmosphere, but methane is up to 120 times more powerful as a warming agent and takes longer to leave Earth’s atmosphere. “Methane accounts for around 25 to 30 percent of all the warming occurring on the planet,” West said, while around a quarter comes from fossil fuel production.

“Mitigating methane emissions is becoming crucial for tackling net emissions.”

While methane leaks at all stages of the natural gas production process, almost half is emitted during the upstream phase. Sensors, drones and even satellites are being increasingly used to detect these emissions. Aramco stopped “flaring” gas years ago.

“The world will need superior methods to mitigate methane. In the developed world, this will be necessary for operators wishing to demonstrate low carbon credentials, and preserve their access to customers and capital markets,” West said. “The other way for investors to lower methane emissions may be to favor companies with low methane emissions and targets to improve.”

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KSA achieves fourth-fastest emissions reductions in G20

22/12/19

The King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center (pictured), an independent, nonprofit institution located in Riyadh, released an analysis of the IEA data at COP25, held last week in Madrid.

Data recently released by the International Energy Agency (IEA) has shown that Saudi Arabia lowered its emissions by 15 million tons (Mt) of carbon dioxide (CO2) or by 2.7 percent in 2018, giving it the fourth-fastest fall in emissions in the G20 group of countries behind Mexico, Germany and France. This is significant as it is Saudi Arabia’s first large policy-induced reduction in CO2 emissions.

The King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center (KAPSARC) released an analysis of the data at the 25th Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), known as COP25, held last week in Madrid.

Dr. Nicholas Howarth, a co-author of the report, said that 74 percent of the fall was attributable to improving energy intensity and 26 percent due to a fall in the carbon intensity of the economy as the Kingdom lowered its domestic consumption of oil.

“Energy efficiency and structural reform policies are combining to lower the Kingdom’s energy intensity, lifting energy productivity. This has been the most significant driver of lower CO2 emissions in the Kingdom,” he said.

Thamir Al-Shehri, another author of the analysis, said that in 2018, Saudi Arabia’s emissions were stable or falling in all energy-consuming sectors of the economy, with transport delivering the majority of the reductions, falling by 13.25 MtCO2 or 11 percent compared with the year before. The share of natural gas in the fuel mix, which is 25 percent less carbon-intensive than oil, has also risen from 32 percent in 2015 to 38 percent in 2018.

“Energy price reforms and stronger energy efficiency standards have combined to stabilize and lower the Kingdom’s historically fast emissions growth in the last three years. What we see in the data is the first signs of the energy transition toward more sustainable use in action,” Al-Shehri said.

Co-author Dr. Alessandro Lanza said the amount of crude oil burned to produce electricity has fallen by around 10 percent each year for the last three years, diesel consumption fell by 15 percent in 2017 and 12 percent in 2018, and total oil products consumed fell by 7 percent in 2018.

“This has the dual benefit of freeing up valuable oil for higher value uses in petrochemicals and export, in addition to lowering the Kingdom’s CO2 emissions,” Dr. Lanza said. “It also shows how climate policies can be aligned with supporting economic growth and Saudi Arabia’s Vision 2030 goals.”

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